Higher gas, gold prices boost firms

marketing8Colorado’s energy economy was humming a decade ago as robust prices buoyed the outlook for virtually every natural resource commodity.

Oil and oil shale, molybdenum, coal, uranium – it looked like a bonanza well into the 21st century.

Alas, early in the 1980s the prices of petroleum and virtually every mineral went south overnight. Drilling rigs were abandoned. Mines shut down. Grand plans for oil from shale disintegrated.

Late in the decade, things turned around again. Lean, productive companies became profitable. Optimism expanded this month when record cold temperatures propelled heating oil and propane prices to the highest levels in years.

Perhaps the brightest outlook for the 1990s is for Colorado’s energy companies strong in natural gas.

“I see the market for natural gas as being pretty darn rosy over the next decade,” said Don Basler, marketing manager for WestGas, an affiliate of Denver-based Public Service Co. of Colorado.

“I think Colorado in particular is going to profit pretty handsomely from that.”

Reasons for optimism about natural, said Basler, include the environmental benefits of clean-burning gas, along with increasing uses of gas as an alternate fuel. In addition, the expanding cogeneration market ordinarily burns natural gas in its production of electricity and other products – such as carbon dioxide or tomatoes.

“Natural gas has the greatest amount of price stability for the ’90s,” said Basler.

Benefiting from that natural gas outlook, in addition to WestGas, will be a host of well-positioned Denver-based companies, including Apache Corp., Plains Petroleum Co., Associated Natural Gas Corp., Western Gas Processors Ltd., Hamilton Oil Corp. and DeKalb Energy Co.

After half a decade of despair, mining industries are well on the way to recovery. The survivors boast a lean, productive and are profitable again.

One hopeful sign is that gold closed the decade above $400 an ounce. Metals analysts expect to see the precious metal in the $425 to $450 range early in 1990. And depending on interest rates and the world’s changing political climate, the price could shoot much higher.

While Colorado is a small-timer in gold production, metro Denver has emerged as the industry hub. With the dozens of mining companies headquartered here, the Colorado School of Mines’ George Ansell touts Denver as the Silicone Valley of mining.

Overall, says David Cole of the Colorado Mining Association, the industry wound up 1989 on an upbeat note, and he expects 1990 to be at least as strong.

Strong clean air legislation will boost demand for coal in low-sulfur production areas such as Colorado and Wyoming.

Rozelle resigns, steals NFL show/ 49ers’ play takes back seat to hunt for new commissioner

marketing10Label: 1989/The year in review

Two months to the day after John Taylor caught the 10-yard pass from Joe Montana to give San Francisco a 20-16 win over Cincinnati and its third Super Bowl of the decade, the NFL was redefined forever.

Pete Rozelle resigned.

If the 49ers defined the ’80s, Rozelle defined three decades, taking over as a compromise 33-year-old commissioner in 1960 and turning the NFL into a national institution. Without Rozelle, arguably, there wouldn’t have been any Super Bowls for the 49ers to win.

Still, if the news belonged to Rozelle and the bitter and protracted search that led to the selection of Paul Tagliabue as his successor, the game belonged to Montana both at the start of the year and end of it.

It started with the 92-yard, 11-play march that led to the TD pass to Taylor with 34 seconds left that beat the Bengals. Jerry Rice was named the game’s MVP with 11 catches for a record 215 yards, but Montana’s drive defined the game, just as it had when he first brought the 49ers to the forefront with the drive that beat Dallas in the 1981 NFC Championship Game and led to the 49ers’ first Super Bowl title.

Then he took up where he left off, leading the 49ers to the NFC West title with a 14-2 record that made them favorites to become the first team since the Pittsburgh Steelers 10 years ago two win back-to-back NFL titles. Montana finished with a 71.5 completion percentage, only the second quarterback in history to go over 70 percent and a 115.5 rating, another record, throwing only seven interceptions all year to go with 25 touchdown passes.

And yet it was only a sideshow to Rozelle’s surprise resignation.

It happened on March 22 at the NFL meeting in Palm Desert, Calif., where owners, general managers and coaches generally gather to change a few rules, make a few committee reports and spend a lot of time debating whether to renew instant replay.

On this day, all seemed quiet until just after noon. Only a handful of Rozelle’s confidants among the owners (in the later debate to be known as the “Old Guard”) knew about it. Even those closest to him on his staff – like Tagliabue, the league’s Washington counsel and Joe Browne, the director of communications – were in the dark.

Now Browne hurried to schedule a press conference. “Joe came by the pool and told me to get a shirt on,” said one reporter. “He said it was important.”

And so it was.

First Rozelle, who had decided that at age 63 that he had had enough of lawsuits and squabbling, told the owners he was retiring, breaking down at the end and spontaneously embracing perhaps his most bitter enemy, the Raiders’ Al Davis, as he left the room. Then he told the media, breaking into tears again.

And then he waited . . .

He had wanted to be gone by Sept. 1 to his new home near San Diego. Instead, he ended up being held hostage by feuding owners for 222 days.

On July 6, the owners met in Chicago, seemingly set to ratify the unanimous selection of the committee appointed to screen new commissioner candidates – Jim Finks, the 62-year-old president of the New Orleans Saints. But 11 owners, upset because the entire committee consisted of owners who had spent at least 20 years in the NFL, kept Finks from getting the 19 votes necessary.

So a new committee was appointed that included two of what became known as the “Chicago 11″ and Davis, who had voted for Finks, but was hardly establishment.

It came back with five candidates, including Finks and the 48-year-old Tagliabue, who became the candidate of the newer owners, who were seeking a “marketing” man rather than one who specialized in football. Ironically, Tagliabue, was one of Rozelle’s closest advisers for the past decade.

Cultural Survival Projects – 1989

marketing9Over the past 10 years, more than half of Cultural Survival’s funds have supported field projects among indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities in the Third World. The final Cultural Survival Quarterly of each year includes a brief description of our approach to projects and project selection as well as an overview of projects funded during the year.

Cultural Survival’s Approach to Projects

Cultural Survival’s complementary program of field projects and research evolved from an understanding that people in small societies often become victims during periods of rapid change by being excluded from decision making, not through any inability or unwillingness to change. Genocide or other gross human rights violations often occur after a long process of social erosion and economic marginalization has weakened a group’s ability to defend itself. Terms such as assimilation and integration often serve to mask such processes, thereby making more palatable the destruction of the social fabric that binds a group.

Cultural Survival defines the term culture as a set of social mechanisms that gives a society its identity and allows it to comprehend its place in the -world and adapt to changing circumstances. This definition does not imply the preservation of some romantic status quo, but rather supports those mechanisms that permit a group to successfully adapt to change. Cultural Survival takes the position that societies do change and that it is not for outsiders to determine whether indigenous people are being “true to themselves.” The organization responds to the needs expressed by native peoples themselves, not to some outsider’s idealized image of an appropriate life. These ideas are consistent with the aspirations and demands of native peoples the world over.

Field projects generally assist groups that are undergoing radical social change and have reached critical crossroads in their social and economic evolution. Projects are selected to maximize such groups’ control over economic and social variables so that they are able to make key decisions regarding the future of their communities. Problems addressed by projects include land rights, natural resource management, legal services, economic development, and cultural studies and promotion.

Project Selection

Rather than design projects, Cultural Survival generally responds to requests for assistance from either indigenous communities or their regional organizations or support groups. Unfortunately, our budget permits us to fund only a few of the requests received. To increase the impact of our limited funds, we select projects that (1) address problems faced by many small societies and (2) allow for extensive documentation and analysis.

By addressing common problems we can respond to a few groups’ urgent needs and, at the same time, generate case studies useful in developing methodology and theory for future work elsewhere. Cultural Survival has also provided emergency assistance, such as medical supplies and travel funds to support research during periods of extreme crisis.

Cultural Survival’s primary goal is to help indigenous peoples retain control over decisions affecting their lives and future. Our support often includes funding their representative organizations, assisting them in obtaining secure land tenure, and providing technical assistance and training in resource management and economic development. Support provided by Cultural Survival-particularly to regional Indian organizations (ethnic federations) – often does not fund entire or discrete “projects.” Cultural Survival’s contributions generally support a single segment of a group’s overall program. In each case, however. Cultural Survival’s concern is with the entire organization, its program, and the projects that program creates.

Current and Future Projects

The overall philosophy of Cultural Survival’s approach to projects will remain unchanged. The list of projects supported in 1989 indicates the breadth of our activities; our commitment to such a range of projects will continue. However, in response to critical changes now facing indigenous people, Cultural Survival has focused on the following related activities:

Banks fight it out on plastic, at machines

marketing7The nation’s banks are fighting the wallet wars, battling to have their cards become the first that consumers pull from the wad of plastic in their pockets.

Citibank advertises its credit cards on national television. Chase Manhattan lists 34 features for its cards, including a free worldwide message network and a legal services program.

Automated teller machines are the scene of other marketing battles. When the Dollar Dry Dock Savings Bank of New York was raiding customers from a nearby Chemical Bank branch, some of Dollar Dry Dock’s teller machines were programmed to flash a reminder about free gifts every time a Chemical customer slipped in a card.

Teller machines of the National Bank of Commerce in Memphis dispense coupons redeemable for Campbell soups, while machines at Equibank in Pittsburgh dispense postage stamps.

These skirmishes are part of the struggle to profit in the high-tech retail banking industry of the 1990s.

Banks that were long content to pump out generic Visas and MasterCards are now trying to become brand names in their own right.

The cashless society is still a long way off, but banks are spending over $10 billion per year on new electronic technology.

Twenty years ago, when Chemical Bank installed the nation’s first automated teller machine, it was a primitive contraption that did nothing but dispense cash in $15 and $30 lots.

Back then, BankAmericard, the forerunner of Visa, was a local program of the California-based Bank of America. And when a customer called a bank, another, live person came on the line.

Now, a web of computers, telephones and plastic cards lets banks serve their customers wherever they travel and work.

“The credit cards allowed banks to follow their customers across state lines and provide banking services nationally, despite the antiquated branching laws,” said D. Dale Browning, president of Colorado National Bank.

By giving customers instant loans at any business that accepts credit cards, banks created an industry that is now one of the most profitable parts of their operation.

Teller machines now dispense cash down to the penny, accept deposits, transfer money, and, in the newest models, help customers apply for mortgages and loans.

Banking by phone handles everything from auto loan applications to bill-paying, all with beeps, tones and recordings.

Teller machines and telephone banking services have not generated the same profits as credit cards. But they are crucial for consumer banking, especially in large cities where competition is most intense. Both are ways for banks to provide services more cheaply and extend their reach far beyond their home states.

Banks see automation and electronics as ways to limit the growth of costly branches, 40 percent of them money-losers.

Branches will not disappear. But bankers want teller machines and telephone banking to free the branch staffs for selling more profitable products like mutual funds.

Gradually, bank customers are learning to love teller machines, if not as much as bankers would like.

Banks have fueled the romance by linking teller machines nationally.

“Customers for some time have come to assume that merchants – with some exceptions like grocery stores – will accept credit cards,” said J. Paul Bouchelle, executive vice president at the First National Bank of Albuquerque, N.M. “Now we are reaching a point with automated teller machines that when they see one, they are inclined to expect that they have a card that will let them get cash.’ The nation’s 70,000 automated teller machines still belong to individual banks, but almost all also belong to at least one of more than 600 sharing systems.

Machines in these systems can serve customers of other banks. Chemical Bank has more than 300 automated tellers, but its customers have access to 28,000 terminals around the country – more, it contends, than any other bank.

The two largest networks of automated tellers – Plus System Inc., an affiliate of Visa, and Cirrus System Inc., a subsidiary of MasterCard – have agreed to grant access to each others’ members.

When the two competing systems link up in June, customers will find that their cash cards work in 44,000 terminals.

Texas takes on LSU

marketing6The Southwest Conference will attempt to earn some respect in basketball circles when the University of Texas meets Louisiana State University at 7 p.m. Tuesday at The Summit.

The contest is considered a home game for the Longhorns, but both teams have a large alumni base in the Houston area. Texas is 7-1; LSU, ranked No. 9 in The Associated Press poll, is 6-1.

“The Texas alums and the LSU alums are very aware of the game and have been supportive,” said Russ Simons, director of marketing at The Summit. “Now we’re hoping that people in Houston will come out for it, and we are hoping for a crowd of between 10,000-to-12,000.’ LSU has challenged an SWC team in The Summit once before and emerged victorious, defeating Texas A&M 75-65 in January 1984.

Sophomore guard Chris Jackson leads LSU in scoring, averaging 27.4 points per game going into Saturday night’s game with Hardin-Simmons. Last season, Jackson was the first freshman to make All-America on the U.S. Basketball Writers of America team, and only the second freshman named to The Associated Press first team.

The LSU front court features two freshman 7-footers in Stanley Roberts and Shaquille O’Neal, who is from San Antonio.

The Longhorns are averaging 96 points per game, and three times this season have scored more than 100 points in a game.

Travis Mays, last year’s SWC Player of the Year, leads the Longhorns in scoring, averaging 27 points per game.

Offshore Manufacturing: Hinditron to manufacture DEC mini-computers in India

marketing5With annual revenues of $10 billion, Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) is the world’s second largest computer company, second only to computer giant International Business Machines (IBM). Early last year, DEC entered the Indian computer market in a big way. It signed an agreement with Hinditron Computers to form Digital Equipment India Limited (DEIL), the biggest joint venture ever undertaken by an Indian computer company.

With a 17-year history of collaboration, Hinditron has already become synonymous with the presence of DEC in India. Now a cluster of eight Indian companies and one U.S. company, Hinditron was founded in 1965 by Hemant Sonawala. He is the man responsible for taking this world class technology to India. He addresses the Silicon Valley Indian Professionals in Mountain View Thursday, December 14.

After graduating from Vallabh Vidyanagar University in Gujarat with a Bachelor’s Degree in Engineering, Sonawala came to the United States to study Electrical Engineering. He got his M.S.E.E. from University of Washington is Seattle in 1961. He worked as a research engineer at Boeing in Seattle, and for two more years at Tektronix.

Sonawala returned to India in 1965 to form Hinditron, marketing Tektronix oscilloscopes in India. In 1971, his company became the first to market DEC-10 and PDP series machines in India. In 1972, Hinditron became the third company (the other two being IBM and ICL) to launch reasonably priced mini-computers in India. It was also the first Indian company to install a time-sharing computer service bureau in India with a PDP-11/34 in 1978.

The fact that Hinditron has installed close to 800 PDP 11s and VAXes countrywide is testimony enough to its market penetration. It also offers quality products both for the micro and mini-computer markets.

The other winner for the company has been its active presence in the software market and CAD/CAM segment. Fifty-five percent of its total revenue comes from the education and R&D segment. Close to Rs. 1.5 crores ($880 thousand) came from sales of customized software in the domestic market in 88-89 and Rs. 2 crores ($1.2 million) from overseas projects.

Hinditron has been an affiliate of Varian since 1975 and has been in manufacturing collaboration with Fluke for making digital voltmeters.

DEIL, the new company formed jointly by Hinditron and DEC, gives the American company a 40 percent equity. “This agreement represents a natural progression of the 17-year relationship between Hinditron and DEC,” says Hemant Sonawala. “It fulfills India’s computer policy of bringing world class technology and companies to participate in the nation’s progress.”

What makes this a momentous occurrence for Indian industry is that DEIL will begin manufacturing the advanced Micro VAX series of super mini-computers in India.

This is good news for Indian computer users, “Now for the first time these and other potential customers will have the opportunity to purchase the same quality computers in India,” Mike Shah, Chief Operating Officer for DEIL, emphasizes.

P.S. Deodhar, Chairman of the Indian Electronic Commission, a government body, feels that this new venture will demonstrate to the world India’s software capabilities. He sees it as a major step in India’s technological growth.

Because of the product strength of DEC computers, products like the VAX 11/780 and Micro VAX II have been utilized in strategic application areas in India such as defense, space, railways, reservation systems, and the HBJ pipeline.

Zap! Into The Nineties STATE OF THE ART FOR FILMS The laser video disc will do to home entertainment in the next decade what the VCR did in the Eighties

marketing4Ten years ago, when America was saying goodby to the decade that bred both Watergate and the pet rock, the film and electronics industries were fresh allies on the brink of the biggest home entertainment revolution since the invention of television.

Now, as we say goodby to the decade that bred Contragate and designer water, they are inching toward the brink again. Having spoiled us rotten with cost-efficient VCRs, neighborhood video stores and $2 movie rentals,the Hollywood and Tokyo-based partners are about to lead us out of the Fuzzy Age of videotape and into the 425-lines-of-resolution, four-channel digital audio age of the video disc.

In the 1980s, we got used to watching movies cheaply at home, at our convenience, without commercial interruptions. In the 1990s, we will get used to watching them under conditions that will almost duplicate the experience in first-run theaters. That means we will switch to larger, higher-definition screen TV sets and, most likely, to laser video-disc players.

The thousands of techologically hip who have already installed video-disc players at home have long known the advantages of discs over tape, not only for viewing movies but for filmed concerts, interactive lectures and for film study, as well. Laser delivers vastly sharper images and crisper, fuller sound, but the album-size discs can also be encoded to show both motion and still pictures, and though the discs themselves are more expensive to manufacture and encode than videotape cassettes, they never wear out.

“A lot of this I don’t understand, but what I do understand is (we’re building) a knowledgeable movie audience,” said former Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences president Fay Kanin, at a recent event where film cinematographers gathered for a demonstration of video-disc technology. “I remember the first time I went out to a video store . . . and saw those rows of films and the people’s excitement, I really thought

the millenium had come. You’re now educating a public to understand what (movies) are all about.”

Movies-first threatened with obsolescence by radio, then TV, then home video-are stronger than ever as we enter the last decade of the first electronic century, and whatever the 1990s bring, they will likely be stronger in the year 2000. Japanese electronics giant Sony closed out the ’80s with its purchase of Columbia Pictures, and other foreign buyers-more from the Land of the Rising Sun, to be sure-will follow.

The “Made in Japan” label that used to serve as a warning sign on tinny 5-and-dime gadgets is now a boast of excellence on robot-assembled automotive and electronics goods. Having captured the bulk of the hardware market in the still growing home electronics industry, the Japanese’s next frontier for expansion is here, in Hollywood, where-despite a measurable slide in quality control-the “Made in the U.S.A.” label still means something.

ARTS IN THE EIGHTIES AWKWARD STAGE

marketing3THE TEMPTATION is to dismiss the theater decade with three little words: Andrew Lloyd Webber. After all, he has been intimately associated with just about all that has been disheartening about Broadway in the ’80s: giganticism, mega-marketing strategies, junk-food plots, music that makes people comfortable because it sounds like music they’ve heard before.

He didn’t throw anyone on the subway tracks or stick push-pins into women on the Upper West Side. But, hey, he has encouraged audiences to confuse actors with roller-skaters and lighting fixtures. And, while making more money than anyone in theater history, he has been at the forefront of the spectacle-because-that’s-all-we’ve-got movement that has distorted and devalued so much of American culture into expensive images, brand names and billboards.

But there has been more to ’80s theater than “Cats,” “Starlight Express,” “Song & Dance” and “The Phantom of the Opera.” I know there has been, I just know it, I’m sure there has . . .

And of course there was. Despite the lure of Hollywood, daunting theater prices and crises in nonprofit theaters that are directly traceable to the Reagan White House, a number of playwrights have managed to keep the faith and turn out some wonderful plays.

After all, this is the decade when August Wilson began his historical cycle of plays about blacks in America – each more impressive than the last. David Mamet came of age on Broadway in the ’80s and Stephen Sondheim, who never lacked for praise and awards, finally has attracted more of the popular audience he deserves.

This also was the decade when Harvey Fierstein’s “Torch Song Trilogy” proved that gay playwrights could stop pretending they were writing love stories about heterosexuals – and still draw crowds and Tonys. Horrifically, this also became the AIDS decade – may it be the only one. Our losses to the disease – Michael Bennett and countless others – are incalculable.

The musical theater also lost Bob Fosse and Gower Champion in the ’80s, which leaves Tommy Tune to carry the torch for the next generation of American director-choreographers. Michael Blakemore, the Englishman who directed “Noises Off,” the only farce I ever loved, closed the decade by staging his first musical, “City of Angels” – a debut that makes you happy he’s around. And, no matter how one feels about the effects of mega-musicals on the fine tuning of the psyche, credit is due the genius behind most of them, British designer John Napier.

Something in me balks at the concept of 10 “best” of anything, but especially in the arts and especially for 10 years. Instead I asked myself to name 10 favorite shows – that is, shows I would love to see again right now. An idiosyncratic list, maybe, but one that was easier to come up with than it was to hold at 10. A nice sign.

“Sunday in the Park with George.” Stephen Sondheim and James Lapine’s exquisite, moving musical about love and other possibilities in the life of an artist.

“Glengarry Glen Ross.” David Mamet’s riveting, uncompromising comedy about small-potatoes real estate hustlers.

“Nicholas Nickleby.” The Royal Shakespeare Company’s masterly eight-hour adaptation of Charles Dickens – the closest I’ve ever come to the sensation of reading a novel in a theater.

Coping With the Economic Prospects of 1990

marketing2LEAD: SURVIVING the decline in the economy will be the overriding issue for 1990, say leaders of the county’s business community. Although the consensus is that Westchester will fare better than many other areas, there is concern that layoffs and a lack of affordable housing will hamper the county’s economic recovery.

SURVIVING the decline in the economy will be the overriding issue for 1990, say leaders of the county’s business community. Although the consensus is that Westchester will fare better than many other areas, there is concern that layoffs and a lack of affordable housing will hamper the county’s economic recovery.

Here are excerpts from conversations with eight business leaders, as they assess the prospects in such fields as real estate, small businesses, hotels and the construction industries.

S. J. Schulman, president, Westchester County Association:

All prognosticators are suitably humbled nowadays: Where were they last year with their predictions about Eastern Europe? Closer to home there is greater confidence, because we’re dealing with mostly rational factors and generally predictable persons. In Westchester that means three groups whose actions we have to assess: government officials, business leaders, consumers.

In 1990, government leaders will gradually accept the lessons of the newly downturned economy and will thus understand that spend-and-tax programs are going to be resisted strenuously. Westchester will start emulating the taxpayer revolts that have increasingly become common on Long Island.

Business leaders are going to continue their corporate perestroika efforts, meaning restructuring that leads to lower employment. The likes of International Business Machines and A.T.&T. and General Foods will be joined by others seeking to become more cost-conscious, to be more competitive in the new downturning economy.

Consumers in Westchester will be more careful with their disposable incomes and more restrained in how they spend money for housing. The new restraint and consumer cautions will be fed by more bad news from Albany and New York City. The state will go through a debate on whether we can afford to continue with the personal income tax plan. New York City’s new administration will have less money to meet perceived needs, so will be a major supplicant looking to Albany.

Westchester’s economic strains will be exacerbated by those in New York City, with a fallout effect on many of our commuters who have been accustomed to secure and well-paid positions. In 1990, everyone’s position will be at risk.

Paul J. Schosberg, president, New York League of Savings Institutions, in Scarsdale:

Focus: Cleveland; A Downtown Mall Adjusts to Setback

marketing1LEAD: WHEN the BP America headquarters building was completed here in early 1985 on Public Square, the city’s center, there was brave talk that a new era in downtown prosperity was beginning.

WHEN the BP America headquarters building was completed here in early 1985 on Public Square, the city’s center, there was brave talk that a new era in downtown prosperity was beginning.

The 45-story tower, the first new construction on the square in 50 years, includes 40,000 retail square feet on the first two levels of an eight-story atrium; the idea was to attract retailers and turn downtown employees into shoppers before and after work.

That has been a hard sell. Despite the 3,000 people who work in the building and the total downtown work force of 150,000, 10 percent of the retail space is vacant.

As in much of the Middle West, retailers here were hurt by the downturn in the region’s economy. In Cleveland, the recession of the 70′s brought with it empty stores. In early 1982, a premiere department store, Halle Brothers, was sold and stood empty until it reopened as an office building in October 1985.

The current vacancy rate is 6 percent, with rentals ranging from $20 to $40 a square foot. Some new retail tenants, as part of their initial one- or two-year lease, are paying a percentage of net sales instead of by the square foot.

Last year, the original strategy for the retail atrium in the BP building was abandoned. Instead of trying to create a specialty center with high-priced boutiques, the space is being marketed primarily to service stores. With the addition of a restaurant, a card-and-gift shop and an expanded travel agency, it is 90 percent leased.

”We have determined that the two types of retailers that we need here and that can survive are destination retailers and retailers who service the tenants in the building,” said Glenn Torch, manager of commercial properties for BP America.

To change the shopping habits would also require changing Clevelanders’ perceptions about downtown, as well as competing with suburban retail development, according to a report prepared for the city in 1987 by Cambridge Systematics, a consulting group in Cambridge, Mass.

”Cleveland is kind of an archetype,” Karl Radov, senior economist and co-author of the study, said. ”There are more shopping malls around it than other cities of its size and many individual towns.”

Although municipal planners and policy makers here and elsewhere in the region are increasingly turning to retail development to revitalize cities, the suburbs have been besting downtown for residential and retail development for more than a decade.

Columbus City Center, a 1.2-million-square-foot shopping mall that opened this year, took more than a decade of planning. In downtown Indianapolis, plans for a one-million-square-foot mixed-use development for two blocks have been in the works since 1978.